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You can also use speech clichés to frame the above arguments:

  • To support what is being said, let us turn to the sentence….
  • This thought can be supported by an example from … sentence of the text.
  • Proposition #…supports the idea that…
  • Let’s turn to sentence … to prove the validity of this statement.

In the last part of the essayshark, students should summarize what was said and draw a conclusion. It is important to check that the conclusion does not contradict the thesis statement and arguments.


Clichés will help students form a conclusion:


  • We have come to the conclusion that.
  • Drawing conclusions from the evidence we have chosen…
  • To summarize the above, we can say…
  • The arguments that we’ve given are irrefutable evidence…
  • So, ….
  • Thus, it is possible to … et al.


Beginning your preparation for writing the essays reviews-expression from task 15.3, you should carefully read the task itself, identify the tasks: formulate and comment on the meaning of this word, then write an essay-expression, taking the definition we gave as the thesis statement. Again, repeat the algorithm for writing an essay-expression. Note that task 15.3 is different from tasks 15.1 and 15.2: students must use one argument from their own experiences. After that, begin working on each element of our algorithm.


When writing the introduction, we need to define a moral concept. To do this, students must answer the question: How do I understand it? They should try to give the definition in one or two sentences and then comment on it. This task was quite difficult for students: it seems that everyone understands, but they can’t formulate and write the definition. To help solve this problem, we should do some vocabulary work: try different ways to determine the lexical meaning of the concepts “friendship”, “loyalty”, “courage”, “honesty”, “self-esteem”, etc. Then carefully reread and analyze the written down definitions.


The next stage of our vocabulary work should be the selection of synonyms to a given word, for example: “friendship” – friendship, friendliness, goodwill, harmony, peace, agreement, pan-friendliness, fraternity…Then we select epithets that can be used with these concepts. For example: “What kind of friendship is there? Answers: real, strong, boundless, close, unselfish, sincere, long-lasting, etc. Next, it may be necessary to choose antonyms and recall sayings, aphorisms, words of poems and songs with the words analyzed. After the work is done, students should formulate their definition of the concept and write it down.


Then we proceed to write the main part. Students find the argument from the text by analyzing the text. This task is usually not difficult because we regularly analyze texts in class and identify the main idea. But with arguments from real-life experience it will be much more difficult – children still have too little experience. That is why we can turn to fiction and historical examples. We also prepared for this task during our literature classes.

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Robert L. Dotson